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A laboratory  is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.

Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory  might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strenght. A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory, while a psychologist’s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists, computers(sometimes supercomputers) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories   as well to design, build, and test technological devices.Scientific laboratories can be found in schools and universities, in industry, in government or military facilities, and even aboard ships and spacecraft.

Techniques:

Laboratory techniques are the sum of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, biology, physics in order to conduct an experiment, all of them follow scientific method; while some of them involves the use of complex laboratory equipment from laboratory glassware to electrical devices others require such specific or expensive supplies.

Equipment:

Three beakers, an Erlenmeyer flask, a graduated cylinder and a volumetric flask, Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory. These include tools such as Bunsen burners, and microscopes as well as specialty equipment such as operant conditioning chambers, spectro-photometers and calorimeters. Another important type of laboratory equipment is laboratory glassware such as the beaker or reagent bottle, or even a thermometer.

Laboratory equipment is generally used to either perform an experiment or to take measurements and gather data. Larger or more sophisticated equipment is generally called a scientific instrument. Both laboratory equipment and scientific instruments are increasingly being designed and shared using open hardware principles.open source labs use open source scientific hardware.

Specialized types:

The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories. These notably include:

  • film laboratory or darkroom
  • clandestine lab for the production of illegal drugs
  • computer lab
  • crime lab used to process crime scene evidence
  • language laboratory
  • medical laboratory (involves handling of chemical compounds)
  • public health laboratory

Safety:

 An eyewash station in a laboratory.In some laboratories, the conditions are no more dangerous than in any other room. In many labs, though, hazards are present. Laboratory hazards are as varied as the subjects of study in laboratories, and might include poisons; infectious agents; flammable, explosive, or radioactive materials; moving machinery; extreme temperatures; lasers, strong magnetic fields or high voltage. In laboratories where dangerous conditions might exist, safety precautions are important. Rules exist to minimize the individual’s risk, and safety equipment is used to protect the lab user from injury or to assist in responding to an emergency.

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